Is CRISPR Dual-Use Research Of Concern?

Today the federal government released its proposed budget for Fiscal Year 2017.  (The year is scheduled to start on October 1st, but this budget isn’t likely to be passed until close to calendar year 2017.)  But it wasn’t the only government release of note.

One item that caught my attention is in the Worldwide Threat Assessment that the U.S. Intelligence Community issued by the Director of National Intelligence James Clapper (H/T MIT Technology Review).  On page nine of the report (page 13 in the digital file) there is reference to recent meetings in the U.S. and Europe that express concern over the unregulated use of genome editing technology.  CRISPR is not named in the report, but that specific technology was the focus of at least one international meeting.

The concern expressed in the report is on the relative ease and reduced cost of being able to conduct the work.  The deliberate or unintentional misuse of this technology could pose national security risks depending on the applications.  The report lists genome editing in a section on weapons of mass destruction (WMD), which suggests that the intelligence community is concerned about this work either being weaponized or (more likely) used to develop particularly nasty biological material.

While the report notes that there are still technical hurdles in existing genome editing systems, I think the mention of genome editing as a technology worth monitoring by the intelligence community raises some new regulatory interests, at least in the U.S.

Genome editing technologies could be classified (at some point in time, if not now) as dual-use and therefore subject to additional scrutiny.  There currently exists a government policy for life sciences dual-use research of concern, but it is focused on particular biological agents and/or toxins and CRISPR or comparable genome editing technologies would only qualify if the purpose of such experiments or the agents and/or toxins already is covered by the policy.

And I think this is a challenge with genome editing.  As I understand it, the advantage of CRISPR and comparable technologies is radically improving the speed and accuracy of what is already being done.  That may change if the new genome editing technologies demonstrate the ability to do some kind of genome editing previously impossible.  We aren’t there yet, but the intelligence community thinks that time is on the horizon.

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